Friday, May 22nd, 2015 | education, technology | Comments Off
It is a mistake to think that information and communication technologies (ICTs) can simply be procured, dropped at a school … and that the school will then be magically transformed into a state-of-the-art educational center.
Technology implementation in schools is a multi-disciplinary activity, requiring the integration of tasks performed by diverse professionals:
- artisans must create an environment in which technology can operate
- technology experts must install the equipment
- communication experts must create a networked and connected environment
- subject experts must ensure that relevant content is available
- trainers must train teachers in the usage of all aspects of the system.
To make sure that all project activities are delivered on time, in the correct sequence, within budget and meeting quality criteria, project management capacity is required.
A lack of such capacity has resulted in haphazard and failed projects in the past. Let’s learn from our mistakes by making sure that adequate project management procedures are in place when contemplating ICT implementation in schools.
Picture credit: http://www.ipmglobal.net/projectmanagementsoftware.htm
Thursday, February 5th, 2015 | education, technology | Comments Off
Many look at e-learning as an education solution. Some teachers achieve magnificent results when they capitalize on the power of technology. But why are these successes the exception, rather than the rule?
The problem with e-learning is that there is far too much emphasis on the “e” and far too little emphasis on “learning”. The focus in any classroom must be learning.
A good teacher who wants to make sure that learning happens will use any available tool to improve the classroom experience. Technology is one such a tool, but learning suffers when learning is overshadowed by the tool: when the latest device innovations are glorified; or the praises of the learning management system are sung; or the bells and whistles of the e-book are emphasized.
Often, more time is spent choosing between available tools than thinking about how the tools will be used. When technology is procured without thinking about the way in which it will support teaching and learning, and then dumped on a teacher who has not been given adequate opportunity to come to grips with it, it becomes a useless gadget.
There is nothing wrong with “e”, in fact, there is so much that is right about it – if we can only find a way of helping the education fraternity to harness it properly!
Wednesday, January 14th, 2015 | education, technology | 1 Comment
The toolbox of a writer contains words and grammar rules. Imagine how difficult it will be to express yourself if you have a vocabulary of only a hundred words and do not know how to write in the past tense.
A good writer strives to know how to manipulate all the rule of grammar and makes a point of learning new words. New words are constantly appearing. Think about new words that have been accepted recently: selfie, podcast, cyberbully and emoticon. The Oxford Dictionary word-of-the-year for 2014 is vape (meaning: to suck an electronic cigarette). A writer who wants to remain relevant must know these words and understand how and when to use them appropriately.
How do you learn new words? Few people sit with a dictionary trying to memorize words. Rather, as we read and encounter a new word we find the meaning and then try to use it when appropriate. The same applies to becoming proficient in the use grammar rules: practice makes perfect.
Now compare this with a teacher’s toolkit.
A teacher needs content knowledge, which must be updated regularly to remain relevant as the world around us changes. But the tools of the trade are also changing. A chalk board, books and pens are no longer sufficient. We live in a world dominated by technology and learners expect that technology tools be used for teaching and learning; the cell phones in their pockets are constant reminders that technology is a part of their life. Sadly, the skill to harness technology is often is not in the toolbox of the teacher.
How can a teacher remedy this situation? Get a device; play around with it; become familiar and comfortable with it; talk to other teachers who have already used technologies in their classrooms; then dive in and use it in your classroom. Remember: practice makes perfect.
Technology in education has a “vocabulary”: devices and content sources. It also has “grammar rules”: the rules of engagement and the skills to use it in support of teaching and learning.
Previous postings on this blog may give you some ideas of how you can become familiar with technology and how to use in your teaching. Click here to find an index to some of these postings.
Friday, December 19th, 2014 | education | Comments Off
When technology is brought into a school and teachers are confronted by it, they are often stymied: What are they going to do with it? How are they to use it? Their lack of knowledge, understanding and wisdom may freeze them into inactivity.
To illustrate: let’s assume you encounter a bull in the field. You recognize the animal as a bull; perhaps you’ve seen one before, or seen pictures or videos of a bull. You have also gained some basic information about bulls: they are stronger than humans; they can run faster than you; they can’t climb trees; and they don’t like humans. All of these facts constitute knowledge about bulls.
When you meet the bull in the field the information you’ve gathered must assist you to understand the situation you find yourself in. The bull is going to kill you; you have to take action fast!
Wisdom comes into play when you make the right decision at the moment when you confront the bull. Are you going to try and outrun him? That will not be so smart because he is faster than you. So you will get into a tree as fast as possible. Without knowledge of bulls and their behaviour, as well as an understanding of your situation, you would be frozen in your tracks.
Think now about a teacher who is confronted by technology in a classroom. Prior knowledge is essential. How does it work? What are its affordances for education? What are the constraints? Knowing these things will lead to an understanding of how technology can improve teaching and learning. Now, when faced with technology the teacher will have the wisdom of putting it to use to improve educational outcomes.
Note the sequence of these three steps. First knowledge: without this you will never be able to take the next steps. Then understanding: knowing how to operate a computer (or any other digital device) will be of no use unless you understand how it can improve educational outcomes. Then wisdom: knowledge and understanding will help you to develop the ability to harness technology to make your classroom a better place. But true wisdom can only be gained through experience, so you have to take the bold step of putting the knowledge and understanding to work.
The road leading from knowledge to understanding to wisdom for surviving bull encounters is quite easy. The road leading from knowledge to understanding to wisdom using technology in the classroom is much more difficult. It requires time, effort and dedication and then more time, effort and dedication. But the results will be rewarding, for both the teacher and the learners.
(Picture credit: http://www.crossfitfuture.com/angry-bull/ )
Monday, May 5th, 2014 | education, technology | Comments Off
TPACK (Technology Pedagogical and Content Knowledge) … this is what I will focus on during the weeks to come!
Thursday, February 13th, 2014 | education, Uncategorized | Comments Off
Ample evidence exists that technology can make a huge difference in education. Many teachers in South Africa use technology right now to improve their own teaching and to help learners to learn better.
Some teachers use interactive classroom devices to keep learners interested and involved in learning material. Others have flipped their classrooms: learners access content at home on mobile devices and teachers then use class time for stimulating discussions and making practical application of the material. Older computer labs are still used with great benefit by teachers for reinforcement, drill-and-practice and research. In all these cases teachers report significant improvements in learning outcomes.
However, we have not seen that technology has improved the quality of education in general. Pockets of excellence exist, which proves the potential value of technology in education, but in the vast majority of schools in South Africa technology has had no impact on education outcomes (even in some schools flush with technology).
Technology is a wonderful patch to improve teaching and learning.But why can’t the patches stick? It has been said that one can’t put a new patch on an old garment. Why? Because the fabric of the old garment may be too weak to hold the patch and so the patch is simply torn off.
Is this the problem in education? Is the education system so threadbare that it cannot hold onto, incorporate, and integrate technology into the system? If so, what can we do about the situation?
Monday, December 9th, 2013 | trends | Comments Off
It was recently announced that the word of the year 2013 is selfie.
What is a selfie? It is defined by the Oxford Dictionary Online as:
… a photograph that one has taken of oneself, typically one taken with a smartphone or webcam and uploaded to a social media website.
We’ve all seen people taking selfies. A picture is needed to complete a profile for a social medium or blog or other online engagement, and the easiest way to do so is to turn your cell phone around and snap.
The word selfie was first used in 2002 in an Australian online forum, and has steadily gained popularity until it was so widely used (both the word and the action) that it became word of the year in 2013.
It is wonderful how language evolves – new words are born every day and ubiquitous technology is accelerating the process. Now that it’s the word of the year, teachers will have to accept selfie when a learner uses it in an essay.
I wonder when LOL and b4 will gain the same acceptance.
Sunday, December 8th, 2013 | education | Comments Off
The results of the Annual National Assessments (ANAs) for 2013 have been released this week by the Minister of Basic Education, Angie Motshekga.
The progress in most cases is encouraging; the different initiatives to improve matters seem to have had an impact. Minister Motshekga said: “I am confident that performance in the education system is on an upward trend and all our interventions and programmes are beginning to produce the desired outcomes.”
One of the areas where progress was less than satisfactory is Grade 9 mathematics. In 2012 the national average was 13%. An improvement of 1% was made during the past year … but the fact remains that only 14% of Grade 9 learners are on standard in mathematics.
If anyone disputes this statistic: a special task team looked into the way the tests were conducted and confirmed that the assessment was fair, valid and reliable. This means that the situation is really as bad as the ANA results indicate!
So what can we do about the matter?
Many initiatives and interventions will likely be launched to remedy the situation. I believe, however, that there is one option that is underestimated: the use of technology.
Many superb software programs are available to assist learners with mathematics. One such program is CAMI, a South African product, fully integrated with our CAPS curriculum. CAMI can be used in schools with school laboratories, and is also available in the form of a home version for parents who want to sharpen the mathematics skills of their children at home.
The value of products such as CAMI is that it covers mathematics from Grade R to Grade 12. Those learners who perform below par in a specific grade can be diagnosed with regards to gaps in their understanding and will then be directed to material to remedy the situation. Through regular use of the programme, learners are helped to learn concepts and practise skills necessary to perform well in mathematics. By using this program, schools and learners around the world have already dramatically improved their performance levels in mathematics.
Should we not investigate technology as an option to improve mathematic outcomes?
Sunday, December 1st, 2013 | Computer Usage | Comments Off
With the growing trend towards mobility and the popularity of tablets in the field of education, is there still a role for a dedicated computer laboratory (lab)?
There is most definitely a place for both. The whole idea of using tablets (or other mobile devices) is for learners to have continuous access to technology as a learning tool. A computer lab has the disadvantage of being physically separated from the classroom, hence making it more difficult for the teacher to integrate classroom teaching with what technology can offer. However, until such a time that every child in a school has a mobile device, the computer lab will continue to fulfil an important role: it may be the only way in which to bring every learner in touch with technology.
It therefore makes sense to keep the computer room in good repair, while phasing in mobile devices – in big schools this may take a few years, owing to the high cost of technology. The need for a computer lab can be re-evaluated once a one-to-one state has been achieved, but until then, resist the temptation to dismantle the computer room in favour of mobile devices.
My advice to learning institutions is to continue using whatever technology is available, making sure that it is used optimally, and then adding more and new technologies.
[This is an extract from a recently published interview … click here to read the full article.]
“What a bold statement,” you may say, “particularly in view of the current proliferation of tablets and other mobile devices.”
Well, consider history.
In 1922 Thomas Edison reportedly said:
I believe that the motion picture is destined to revolutionize [transform] our education system and that in a few years it will supplant the use of textbooks … The education of the future, as I see it, will be conducted through the medium of the motion picture where it should be possible to obtain 100 percent efficiency.
Did this expectation come true? In spite of the fact that some teachers used motion pictures with great success in their schools, we know that this medium did not manage to transform the education system. What went wrong?
Edison based his prediction on a number of assumptions about this potentially powerful tool:
Content: He assumed that sufficient relevant content will be available in film format to cover all learning areas for all grades.
Affordable and available equipment: He assumed that motion picture equipment will be affordable and will be made available to every classroom.
Technology stability: He assumed that the motion picture will not be replaced by other technologies in the short to medium term, and will continue to be the first choice technology for entertainment and education of the masses.
Classroom integration: He assumed that all teachers will become skilled in using motion pictures as a substitute for textbooks and will change their teaching practices accordingly.
We now know that none of these assumptions proved to be true. Yet, in later years, the same assumptions were made with regards to radio, TV, PCs, laptops, interactive whiteboards … and are now being made about tablets. Let’s look at these assumptions again:
Content: In contrast with the erroneous assumption about content availability when the 1922 motion picture prediction was made, we can safely assume today that sufficient digital content is available as ebooks, educational software and even open education resources. But now we are making another assumption: learners (and their teachers) will know how to find their way through the plethora of available content; the current under-utilization of such resources proves that this assumption is wrong. This is clearly a case where more is not better, and the mere availability of content in no way guarantees that it will be used.
Affordable and available equipment: This is a more risky assumption; tablets are less costly than its PC and laptop predecessors, but how much will it cost – and how long will it take – to provide every child in the country with a tablet? For education to be transformed, more than a sporadic presence of technology is required; every teacher and child needs access to technology for it to have a significant effect.
Technology stability: Technologies have replaced each other rather rapidly over the years and the rate of change is accelerating; we can’t assume that the tablet as we know it today will be the device of choice in a year or two from now. In fact, based on the history of technology, we can safely assume that it won’t!
Classroom integration: This is the most dangerous assumption of them all; it can almost be stated as a fact that it will take years – many, many years – to train and educate all our teachers to become comfortable in using technology for teaching and learning.
The flawed assumptions made in 1922 about a particular manifestation of technology are still being made today. And we’ve only discussed four of them.
Until these suppositions become realities we can’t expect the tablet, or any other technology device, to revolutionize education. A mere change in tools does not bring about transformation.
The full potential of technology can only be achieved if it is part of a complete rethink of education structures and practices.
Tablets will not transform education … unless we empower our teachers to become skilful users of technology!